Since 2012 and the expansion of Moscow's borders, the Kaluga Region now also shares a border with the capital. Kaluga lands have an ancient and rich history, the regional centre Kaluga was first mentioned in 1371. Kaluga is considered the 'Cradle of Cosmonautics' as the famous Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky worked and lived there. Obninsk is a science-city where the world's first civilian nuclear power plant was put into operation in 1954. The city also has a 315 metre tall meteorological tower. Borovsk is considered the unofficial centre for Old Believers as Feodosia Morozova and her sister Yevdokia Usurova were imprisoned here for their stance against the reforms of Patriarch Nikon. The sisters died in prison and were buried in Borovsk. Maloyaroslavets is famous for the battle fought here in October 1812 against Napoleon, which forced him to give up on his attempt to leave Russia via Kaluga. Finally Kozelsk is famous for the defence the city put up against Batu Khan in 1238 during the Mongol-Tatar Invasion of Rus.
The Kaluga Region is considered one of the leaders of eco, ethno and agro-tourism in Russia and the Etnomir ethno-park, where you can spend the night in a yurt, is located in the region. At the Nikola-Lenivets park you can find out about and see examples of "land art" at the Arkhstoyanie Festival. Also worth visiting is the Vorobi Bird Park which has over 2,000 types of birds. Alongside this the Kaluga Region is also the leading area within the Central Federal District for foreign investment and many well-known international companies have bases in the region.